2013, Volume 5, Issue 1
The Image of a Football Fan as Depicted in Research Literature and the Present Study
1Department of Sports Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk
Author for correspondence: Franciszek Makurat; Department of Sports Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk; email: makurat[at]wp.pl
Background: The issue of spectator behaviour at sporting events remains ever current and in need of a lot of interdisciplinary research which would take into account the needs of the contemporary society. The following paper is an attempt at this in the context of the author’s own research and EURO 2012.
Material/Methods: The study made use of The Adjective Check List (ACL) by H.B. Gough and A.B. Heilbrun in two versions – Real Self and Ideal Self – as well as a self-designed survey. One hundred and twenty people took part in the study, 45 of them were supporters of Arka Gdynia, 43 were supporters of Cracovia Kraków and 32 were supporters
of Lech Poznań. The goal of the study was to characterize football fans on the basis of this Triad. The analysis included both a descriptive analysis and a decisive analysis. Statistical tests were used as part of the decisive analysis.
Results: Significant differences between study participants were found with respect to the participants’ age. Three groups emerged. The eldest group is very conscientious, patient and prefers peace, calm and anonymity. In the middle group key characteristics are: decisiveness, self-confidence and persistence. The youngest sports fans are most impulsive, the least disciplined and the most impatient. In the three age groups, very few statistically significant differences were noted with respect to the real Self image and the ideal Self image.
Conclusions: All the hypotheses were confirmed. The sports fans from the study have a strong competitive streak accompanied by a heightened level of aggression. In order to get a better understanding of what really goes on in sports arenas more research is necessary, including research on sports fans of other sport disciplines.
Key words: sports fan, sporting event, football, pro- and anti-sports behaviour