2010, Volume 2, Issue 2
Gymnasts’ Special Quickness-Force Abilities and the Indicators of Jump from a Springboard
Adam Koperski1, Andrzej Kochanowicz2, Czesław Słodkowski2
1Department of Gymnastics, Jedrzej Sniadecki Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk
2Jedrzej Sniadecki Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk
Author for correspondence: Adam Koperski; Department of Gymnastics, Jedrzej Sniadecki Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk; email: koperskia[at]wp.pl
Background: The aim of this research is to find a relation between one’s special quickness-force abilities, recorded in laboratory conditions, and physical values, revealed during a gymnastic jump in a real sports contest.
Material/Methods: The tests were made on gymnasts, aged 15–18 years, from the Academic Sports Association (AZS) in Gdansk. The gymnasts were a selected group of 8 people who had already practised sport for 9–12 years as contestants. The project was carried out in the Physical Effort Laboratory at the Academy of Physical Education and Sport (AWFiS) in Gdansk, using of the Kistler tensometric platform to measure and analyse the ground reaction forces. The strength of leg muscles and pelvic girdle were checked. The measurements of quickness and force abilities of sportsmen were based on the assessment of power of their take-off and the time in which they contacted the ground. The results were compared with the result analysis of jumps achieved by the contestants in the Individual Polish Championships (Iława 2005). The measurement of the mechanical quantities during the take-off at the springboard was done using the photogrammetric method.
Results: The statistically highest and important correlation between the results of gymnasts in the quantity of the take-off power, checked on the tensometric platform and at the springboard was with the value being r=0.916 for p≤0.05. A crucial correlation was also observed for the time of the contestant's contact with the ground in laboratory
tests and the same parameter measured during the contestant's taking off the springboard (r = 0.668).
Conclusions: The analysis of test results reveals a strict correlation between the level of one’s abilities in quickness and force in laboratory conditions and physical values revealed during the take-off from a springboard in an actual contest. The measurement of the quickness-force abilities (the power of take-off) in laboratory conditions can be used as the measurement of the sportsmen’s preparation for the gymnastic jump.
Key words: artistic gymnastics, quickness and force abilities, take-off power, vault