2016, Volume 8, Issue 4

The effect of specific strength training on the quality of gymnastic elements execution in young gymnasts

Stanisław Sawczyn1, Mariusz Zasada2, Andrzej Kochanowicz2, Bartłomiej Niespodziński3, Michał Sawczyn1, Viktor Mishchenko2

1Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport
2Faculty of Physical Education, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport
3Institute of Physical Education, Kazimierz Wielki University

Author for correspondence: Bartłomiej Niespodziński; Institute of Physical Education, Kazimierz Wielki University; email: bar.niespodzinski@wp.pl

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Background: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of specific gymnastics strength training on the quality of technical indicators of gymnastic elements in young gymnasts.

Material/Methods: The study involved 24 gymnasts aged 12-13 years (n = 11) and 13-15 (n = 13). Among the participants were the winners and medalists of the Polish Championship competitions. The duration of the gymnasts’ sports training was 5-8 years. We evaluated the impact of changing the strength capabilities by using a specific strength training program in order to improve the quality of the performance of selected gymnastic elements. Indicators of maximum static strength (isometric) and dynamic strength were established on the basis of the system torque Ergo and Ergo Power Meter (Globus, Italy).

Results: The data show that the technique can improve performance not only by the overall increase in strength, but also at the expense of mastering the specific strength forms required to perform a specific gymnastic element. This can be done by the specialization of dynamic characteristics of the development of muscle tone and its various varieties: intramuscular, intermuscular coordination and probably the economization of motor units requirement.

Conclusions: The collected data also indicate that the realization of strength abilities of young gymnasts is closely linked to education and improvement of skills and motor habits. Various aspects of strength abilities gymnasts according to the nature of their content are also characterized by high specificity of their mutual relations.

Key words: strength training, artistic gymnastics, young gymnasts