2016, Volume 8, Issue 4
The effectiveness of various verbal information in learning backward roll
Tomasz Niźnikowski1, Marta Nogal1, Michał Biegajło2, Waldemar Wiśniowski1, Ewelina Niźnikowska3
1Department of Gymnastics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Division in Biała Podlaska
2Department of Physical Games and Music& Movement, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Division in Biała Podlaska
3Pope John Paul 2nd State Higher School
Author for correspondence: Tomasz Niźnikowski; Department of Gymnastics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Division in Biała Podlaska; email: tomasz.niznikowski[at]awf-bp.edu.pl
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of different types of verbal feedback in learning a backward roll.
Material/Methods: The study included 29 participants aged 6-8 years who attended acrobatic gymnastics classes. They were randomly assigned to 3 groups. An experiment and experts’ evaluation were the main research methods. During the experiment the study participants were taught abackward roll. The experts evaluated the backward roll performance at the beginning (pre-test) and at the end (post-test) of the experiment as well as one week after the experiment (retention).
Results: When teaching and learning the backward roll, an increase in mean values was noted in the post-test, with the highest increase in group P (16.7%). In the retention test, the highest increase was found in group E (16.2%), whereas the lowest one was observed in group P (15.2%) (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: 1. Verbal feedback on errors proved the most effective in the process of learning the backward roll.
2. At early stages of learning, too much verbal feedback usually disturbs and hinders the process of acrobatic skill acquisition.
3. Further research is necessary to determine principles of teaching and learning simple and complex motor skills.
Key words: teaching and learning, feedback, sports acrobatics