2017, Volume 9, Issue 3

Kinematic analysis of the block start and 20-metre acceleration phase in two highly-trained sprinters: A case report



Michał Janowski1, Jacek Zieliński1, Michał Włodarczyk1, Krzysztof Kusy1

1Department of Athletics, Poznan University of Physical Education


Author for correspondence: Michał Janowski; Department of Athletics, Poznan University of Physical Education; email: mjanowski@awf.poznan.pl


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Abstract

Background: The main purpose was to evaluate individual kinematic characteristics in highly trained sprinters during the „set” position, block clearance and a 20-m acceleration phase, as well as to determine differences and/or technique similarities.
Material/Methods: The measurements were carried out on two sprinters, members of the Polish national team. A wireless portable MyoMotion system (Noraxon Inc., USA) was applied. Angular changes and accelerations of all limbs, trunk and head were measured.
Results: Increased motion asymmetry between sides brought about stride fluctuation and worsened sprint performance. This effect occurred when the sum of the discrepancies for hip, knee and ankle joints exceeded 20° or if one joint exceeded 10°. For acceleration, the adverse effect occurred when the range exceeded 1.40 G during the acceleration phase. Greater asymmetry resulted in lower acceleration during block clearance. During block clearance rear hip and right knee angles did not exceed 110º and 100°, respectively, in the best attempts. The „set” position seemed to have little impact on performance.
Conclusions: Sprinters exhibit individual kinematic characteristics. Fast block clearance and stride symmetry are key factors affecting sprint performance during the 20-metres acceleration phase. Additional research is necessary to determine the most effective pattern.


Key words: biomechanics, motion analysis, acceleration, stride symmetry, block clearance, \"set\" position